Acetylene production technology

C2H2 is a compound having four atoms i.e, 2 atoms of carbon and 2 atoms of hydrogen, acetylene is highly unstable and explodes with mechanical shock. Acetylene is stored in liquid form with the help of acetone; it dissolves in acetone under applied pressure between 12 to 15 atm and the risk of explosion can be avoided during transportation for fewer distances. However, on spot utilization of acetylene for cutting (oxy-acetylene cutting torch) and welding works were performed due to its storage difficulty. By using specially designed horizontal cylinders filled with monolithic porous mass as fibrous substance are packed firmly so that acetylene can be charged into the cylinders, and stay stable during shipment. Porous cement with asbestos is used as filling medium that allows acetylene to flow through it porous.

Some of the acetylene production technologies developed keeping in mind about the safety hazards:

Using calcium carbide:

  • Wet method:
    • Carbide adding to water generation
    • Water adding to carbide generation
  • Dry method

Using hydrocarbons like natural gas and naphtha:

  • Electric arc processes:
    • HbLs arc process
    • Hoechst WLP process
    • HbLs plasma process
  • Partial combustion processes:
    • Badische Anilin-und Soda-Fabrik (BASF) process
    • SBA process
    • Montecatini process
  • Thermal cracking:
    • Hoechst high-temperature pyrolysis process
    • BASF submerged flame process
  • Regenerative furnace processes:
    • Wulff process
    • Pyrolysis by direct firing
  • Co-product in ethylene synthesis

Using coal:

  • AVCO process: Rotating arc reactor technology
  • HbLs arc process: Magnetically rotating arc reactor technology