Allied and chemical industry occupy one of the major parts in the manufacturing sector. These industries have grown in such a way that a countries economy and capital assets strongly bonded to their production. As well as chemical products consumption also. After Second World War an industrial revolution boosted the rise of the chemical industry to produce products in mass production. It is primary aim is to reach the end user all over the globe.
All these chemical and allied industries are based on the research and engineering development. The Rand D are mainly concerned on new integrated processes in chemical industry and catalyst with less cost and long life. The objective of designing a chemical process is to convert any useless or low-cost raw material to useful and profitable end product. This differs from each manufacturing process when compared to assemble industries that manufacture cars, electronic gadgets and aeroplanes.
A complete set of engineers and scientists have to work together to design and build a chemical process. Based on the intention of;
- Not harming the environment,
- Produce a safe product,
- Generate harmless by-products,
- Have high conversion and yield and
- Ultimately produce a product with a price that can be afforded by a common man.
Some of the key-role engineers influence the chemical industry would be a chemical engineer, mechanical engineer and civil engineer. In addition to them, a chemist is sufficient to design a chemical process plant in a pilot scale. Basics of fundamental chemistry, thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, economics and unit operations are the subjects required to get knowledge on chemical process designing and to construct a full-scale plant.
Allied and Chemical industry system classified based on the following chemical process categories:
- Natural product industry
- Inorganic chemical industry
- Organic chemical industry
- Polymerization industries
- Metallurgical industries
- Pollution control and hazards chemicals treatment industries.
And finally to understand what is really chemical process concerned would be the unit process of the industry. Some of the examples are given below which relates the unit process to the chemical process industry:
|Unit process||Chemical process industry|
|Esterification||Oil and fat|
|Sulfonation||Surface active agents|
|Polymerization||Petroleum, plastics, elastomers and synthetic fibres|
New technologies are going to change the definition of chemical process in near future. Where every material can be converted and manufacture to a user need. Due to wide research on the chemical process towards Eco-friendly operations new industries are giving better results to protect the global atmosphere by converting the harmful chemical to a neutral state. Yet we are in need of such technologies which prevent pollution forever. Detail descriptions of a chemical process are done with help of process flow sheets and unit operation procedures that include manufacturing equipment working mechanism between streams.
Properties of a pure substance that a design of chemical industry depends:
Pure substance, what does it mean by pure substance? How do we distinguish whether it is pure or not? Well, this was what we think of when we study the properties of the pure substance. We know that all the substance are made from the building block of atoms and when a particular element make up substance and the substance contains only that particular element with another even it transforms to other phases that is from solid to liquid and liquid to vapor in all such states whatever substance we deal with must contain only the same element that it is called pure substance.
Coming to finding out the purity of the substance we need to know the properties of that element, the properties of a substance differ from to element which helps us to identify the substance in which class it belongs to. Based on the theory of thermodynamics there are some well know properties and graphs between physical quantities are developed and they are :
- Saturation temperature: It is the temperature of the substance when its liquid form starts boiling and vapor formation take place at constant pressure.
- Saturation pressure: With reference to the saturation temperature the liquid at the particular pressure is referred as saturation pressure, based on this the substance is termed as a saturated liquid, saturated vapor, sub-cooled liquid, compressed liquid, and superheated vapor.
- VLE data: Vapor-liquid equilibrium data is obtained from experimental studies which show the relation between liquid and vapour phases exist at particular temperature and pressure.
- PVT diagram: Pressure, Vapor and Temperature diagram which is drawn in 3 dimension view to show the substance state nature during variations of physical quantities of the above three parameters in the testing device.
Reduced properties, the equation of state and compressibility factor are some of the basic properties considered for pure substance processing.