Chemicals from coal during coking it in a coke oven

During the process of destructive distillation of coal to obtain it in coke form. Highly valuable organic and inorganic chemicals are produced. These chemicals are second in line when compared to chemical products obtained from crude petroleum (stand in front). A typical chemical plant and power plants like steel manufacturing, coke manufacturing industries constructed with coal chemicals recovery section. They include the following main units;

  • Primary cooler block
  • Tar precipitation section
  • Ammonia sulphate unit
  • Naphthalene, anthracene recovery section
  • Benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) process unit.

From the industrial age, coal is converted to coke and used as fuel. It is also gasified to produce liquid fuel and extracted to obtain chemicals products like:

Source for chemicals from coal

Coke oven battery section model


  • Coal gas and its derivatives
  • Ammonium thiocyanate
  • Ammonium sulphate
  • Flotation sulphur
  • Pyridine base
  • Fuel Gas

Light oil and its products:

  • Solvent naphthas
  • Industrial xylols
  • Industrial toluols
  • Industrial benzols
  • Fore runnings

Tar and its chemicals from coal

  • Crude anthracene
  • Crude naphthalene
  • Tar acids
  • Tar bases
  • Tar acid oils
  • Creosote
  • Pitch oils
  • Pitch coke
  • Industrial pitches
  • Road tar
  • Refined tars
  • Fluorene
  • Diphenylene oxide
  • Acenaphthene
  • Alpha methylnaphthalene
  • Beta methyl naphthalene

The above chemicals from coal are the direct root out of coal processing by destructive distillation. They are further refined and processed to produce other organic chemicals as derivatives. Some of the famous are given below:

Coal is subjected to a number of chemical conversion process to obtain a particular product. One of the chemical processes like a solvent extraction valuable products like montan wax and cumarone resins are obtained. Carbonisation is done in steel manufacturing industries. An idea about the presence of various products in the coal is determined by ultimate and proximate analysis. Based on this experimental results coal processing industries running conditions are determined. Process chemical engineer, in coordination with the coke oven engineers who would be with metallurgy and ceramic background, defines the process parameters for the smooth operations.

Types of coal:
Well, coal is ranked based on its moisture percentage and ash content. Lowest rank coal is lignite and then the rank increase from bituminous coal to anthracite.  The complete list of chemicals is obtained from anthracite coal because of its high content in volatile matter and fixed carbon content than other types.

Even some of the harmful chemical that affects the environment is generated during processing coal to coke formation. One of the main compounds is hydrogen disulphide. It is dangerous and toxic chemical gas.