Classification of Ores to Obtain Mineral and Metal

We have eight types of ores found in the earth’s crust. These ores are only sourced to obtain the mineral and metal for our needs. A set of physical and chemical processes are involved in extracts all metals. Mineral process/mining engineers and geologists are the key personals who take up this job. They call it as ore when it has a composition of a uniform concentration of particular components. For example, it will be an iron ore when the iron is the most component found in it when compared to other elements. Our earth crust filled with an element formed by the stars in the universe.

Classification of ores, based on the principle metal present in them.

  • Oxide ores
  • Sulphide ores
  • Carbonate ores
  • Halide ores
  • Sulphate ores
  • Silicate ores
  • Nitrate ores
  • Phosphate ores

Each classification of ores will have the following minerals and composition elements:

Classification of Ores chart

  • Oxide ores are Bauxite (Al2O3.2H2O), Cuprite (Cu2O), Haematite (Fe2O3), Magnetite (Fe3O4), Zincite (ZnO),
    Tinstone or Casseterite (SnO2), Pyrolusite (MnO2) and  Pitch Blende (U3O8).
  • Sulphide ores are Copper Pyrites (Cu2s, Fe2S3 or CuFeS2), Copper Glance (Cu2S), Zinc Blende (ZnS), Cinnabar (HgS), Galena (PbS) and  Argentite or Silver Glance (Ag2S).
  • Carbonate ores are Magnesite (MgCO3), Dolomite (CaCO3MgCO3), Calamine (ZnCO3), Malachite (CuCO3.Cu (OH)2) and Limestone (CaCO3).
  • Halide ores are Rock Salt (NaCl), Carnallite (KCl.MgCl2.6H2O), Horn Silver (AgCl), Sylvine (KCl) and Cryolite (3NaF.AlF3 or Na3AlF6).
  • Sulphate ores are Epsom Salt (MgSO4.7H2O), Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), Barytes (BaSO4) and Anglesite (PbSO4).
  • Silicate ores are Asbestos (CaSiO3.3MgSiO3), Felspar (K2O.Al2O3.6SiO2 or KAlSi3O3) and Mica (K2O.3Al2O3.SiO2.2H2O).
  • Nitrate ores are Chile Salt Petre (NaNO3) and Bengal Salt Petre (KNO3).
  • Phosphate ores are Phosphorite (Ca3(PO4)2).

Metal with respective to the ore determines its presence.

Precious earth metals extracted from the following ores:


  • Metal aluminium (Al) obtained from Bauxite, Cryolite, Felspar and Mica ores.
  • Copper (Cu) extracted from Cuprite, copper pyrites, copper glance, and malachite ore.
  • Iron (Fe) the most produced metal obtained from Haematite and Magnetite ores.
  • Zinc (Zn) produced from Zincite, Zinc Blende and Calamine ore.
  • Uranium (U) extracted from Pitch Blende ore.
  • Tin (Sn) obtained from Tinstone ore.
  • Manganese (Mn) processed from Pyrolusite ore.
  • Mercury (Hg) processed from Cinnabar.
  • Lead (Pb) obtained from Galena and Anglesite
  • Silver (Ag) extracted from Argentite and Horn silver ores.
  • Magnesium (Mg) produced from Magnesite, Dolomite, Carnallite, Epsom Salt and Asbestos ores.
  • Calcium (Ca) extracted from Limestone and Gypsum.
  • Sodium (Na) treated with Rock Salt and Chile Salt Petre.
  • Potassium (K) generated from Bengal salt petre and Sylvine.
  • Barium (Ba) obtained from Barytes ore.
  • Phosphorus (P) produced from Phosphorite ore.