Based on the field of consideration flocculation systems are widely spread across science and engineering to production and treatment plants. Surface chemistry, physical chemistry, civil engineering, biology, water treatments are some of the main research fields where we can find out the flocculation systems.
It is a separation operation. That carry out the task by separating collides in solution by means of flocculating agents.Substance that used to generate the floc is called as flocculating agent. It encourage the small particles to come together and form the colloids to such a size that they can be separated by means of centrifugal filtration or by simple sedimentation. However, in most cases it depends on the colloids and solution state of existence.
Flocculating agents are available in three classes:
- Natural flocculants: Starch compounds, polysaccharides, alginates, gelatin, chitosan
- Mineral flocculants: polymers structured metal hydroxides, colloidal clays and silica in activated form
- Synthetic flocculants: non-ionic polymers as Polyamines
Water treatment systems use this technique to purify water for drinking purpose. Industrial sewage treatment and waste-water treatment are adapting this technique to decrease the effluent level in the waste-water. Alum type flocculant used for water treatments.
Some of the coagulant reagents react with the compound in the water to form them a flocs and get them to settle. Ferric sulphate combines with calcium carbonate to form calcium sulphate and ferric hydroxide similarly ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate and sodium aluminate react with calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate.
Protein precipitation involves the colliding grow up and settle with the flocculating mechanism. Brewing process use flocculating agents at the end of fermentation to collect the yeast and separate from the fluid.