A simple plant layout model explains how to design a process plant effectively with all the facilities required for smooth running of production of desired product, for example, to produce ammonia from natural gas and air and then urea by ammonia and carbon dioxide, a perfect design can be made so that it operates with high performance and less maintenance with negligible shutdowns. Startup of the plant after periodic maintenance should not be much difficult to handle and it should come in line as quickly as possible with the appropriate controlling system.
Coming to the description of plant layout designing a process plant requires enough area so that it can adjust some of the sections like:
- Process unit
- Cooling towers
- Electrical stations
- Effluent treatment plant
- Demineralisation plant
- Pre-treatment plant
- Raw material and product storage facility
- Power generator unit
- Boiler section
- Control room, administration block and canteen
- Transport station
- Maintenance and workshop section
The above are some of the main section to present in any process plant by default and of course based on product and chemical reaction mechanism some of the other section can be included for example in case of pharmaceutical product separate quarantine and packing section are included. As per know let see what are the operation of each section and their role in the industry would be. By design a plant layout before construction of the plant will help to place the section in available are so that plant can operate economically and obtain profits. During the design, some of the factors really help a design engineer to give his best output.
Factors which influence the plant layout are:
- Integration of section
- Minimum man and material movements
- The smooth running of a process
- Safe and secure system
To understand this concept much easily let see the diagram which shows each section of the plant. From left section like effluent treatment plant, demineralisation plant, pre-treatment are set up in the first row and then ammonia process is built with control room near and in a safe position which is in enough distance so that it will save in case of accidents and control system are near enough to reduce their wiring cost. Urea process section and cooling tower section are fallowed leaving behind the utility section like boiler, stack, bagging; power generator and storage are given as per safety priority. All inflammable material is stored separately from process section so that all the fire safety equipment is placed at a perfect distance. This way a chemical plant layout design can give a basic idea to handle the project by a process and design engineer.