Production of drinking water at low cost is the most critical challenge for the process engineers. Due to the shortage of freshwater resources and increase in groundwater pollution by the harmful chemicals and metals, the immediate need for purification systems to protect the health of the people.
One of the advanced setups for production of drinking water is a humidification-dehumidification water desalination system. Using solar power the salt-water desalination can be achieved. It is this technology shows promising results. Not only for drinking even for the irrigation, clean water can be produced a complete year from the salt and brackish waters. Let us see the different setup available economically. The mechanism is simply that to evaporate the water using sun heat energy. By two, important steps humidification and dehumidification operation govern the process of purification by natural means mechanically. This technology avoids the use of chemicals.
Brackish water is pumped from the storage take or sump to the rooftop solar heating panels. The solar radiation evaporates the water. The design of the heating panels makes the water vapour to condense on its slant surface. Even the solar energy is used for powering up the pumps.
Depending on the availability of water sources and impurities present in it the capacity and models of the treatment equipment will vary. In case of groundwater five steps of treatment, operations are preferred that is a distillation, micron filtration, reverse osmosis, ozonation and UV light exposure.
Drinking water production from groundwater is a good small-scale business. The need for drinking water is growing due to lack of freshwater resources. Pollutants, dissolved solids and microorganisms are main contents that make water unsafe for drinking. With the above equipment set up a small scale of 1000 to 2000 litre per day, capacity units can be established. The occupancy of the unit is just 100 sq ft.