Crude oil and natural gas exploration performed around the globe and their reserves built with different types of facilities. They are classified based on the availability of the crude oil and natural gas at a particular location.
The following types of crude oil and natural gas exploration facilities are in existence and used effectively
Onshore wells: When the reserves are available at deeper undergrounds on land than the facility for producing, oil and gas called as onshore well. A donkey pump is famous onshore oil production equipment that is equipped with sucker rod.
Offshore, fixed multi-platforms: When a company finds as oil well at rivers and sea they build a drilling platform, which is fixed and have the ability to move based on the requirement that the facility is called as offshore, fixed multi-platform.
Offshore, fixed, self-contained platform: It is a complex of all utility facilities like processing, accommodation, power, wellhead platform, riser structures.
Offshore, self-contained concrete gravity platform: It is a concrete basement constructed on the land of the sea. The narrow tower is thus formed are fitted to the surface platform. This facility can be used at water depth about 100 to 500 meters.
Offshore, floating, single point mooring: Flexible leg supports enables to move in free space in the bounded area to reach out the site of natural gas exploration. All the upper system can float and the bottom well connected with flexible systems.
Storage/shuttle tanker: Floating production and storage offloading system is equipped with extraction, storage, drilling, and natural gas exploration facilities altogether. It is a hull model having a capacity of producing 200,000 barrels per day.
Offshore, floating tension leg platforms: A TLP stand vertically in position with a single leg, it floats by the spare buoyancy force. Tension-Leg-Platform is a facility designed to stand in a particular position with tensions tendons. It does not have any storage options. It is suitable in the areas where hurricanes exist in most time. TLP facility performs efficiently at a water depth ranging from 300 to 3000 meter.
Subsea manifolds: The complete system is located on the floor of the sea. Undersea oil and gas pipeline transport the extracted oil directly to the processing facility. This facility is good in progress up to 500 meters depth for natural gas exploration.
On a technical point of view to achieve successful exploration data, geostatistical methods are used. By one, two and three-dimensional methods complete overview of the oil well can be estimated with respect to drilling during, reinjection pressures, risk factors etc. Mainly it provides data for the economy and process sheet before taking up the production facility project.
Seismic technology application in the exploration of crude oil and NG reserves:
To estimate the worthy oil and gas petroleum industries prefer the seismic 3D volume tool, it gives a high percentage of accurate output data about the quantity of oil that can be produced. Seismic data obtained from 3D volume method are derived by the geophysicist and shared with engineers to take the task of determining the boring mechanism, type and mode of the drilling system, production rate and flow rate of the output oil and safe gas storage facility.