Water a fluid with power and a source of life has gained highest value in the human heart. The spiritual solution ever man been bonded with his life for survival. It has become one of the important content for universal explorers in search of life on other planets. Up to now, the liquid form of water was abundantly available on our planet which life exists on an official basis. Solvent nature of water helped man to reach his advance and civilized form of living conditions.
Water has two important properties for which it has the honour of excellent solvent.
1. It is a polar molecule, a simple attractor for ions. Positive as well as negative ions attracted towards water molecule due to its polarity on hydrogen and oxygen. Negative ion attracted by hydrogen’s and positive ion attracted towards oxygen. These forces of attractions are so weak forming hydrated ions. Due to this constant moving water molecules and ions, prevail all over the time. The dipole moment of individual water, molecules vary their count around the ions. Thus, the number of water molecules associated with a particular ion generates a hydration number. The process of hydration possesses a definite amount of heat energy. When this energy is more than the lattice, energy of ions than the dissolution of the solute compound in water is exothermic in nature (heat release during dissolution). In vice-versa, the condition is endothermic where heat supplied for dissolution.
2. Its dielectric constant is about 78.54, well sufficient to separate most of the solute ions exist in nature. This effectively decreases the electrostatic forces of ions in the solute.
The above properties turned science and research to an elevated level. All chemical solution in laboratories, process industries and agriculture all depend on the condition of the water. If it is not a solvent in liquid form than what would be the stage we live in now.